The gender wage gap refers to the difference between men’s and women’s average salaries. Wage gap statistics may show some improvements compared to previous years, yet figures on women in the workplace indicate intense racial and gender discrimination. The discrepancy between men’s and women’s salary is vast, revealing that female workers have lower pay than male employees, no matter what their qualifications or competencies are.
Even though more and more women have more significant business roles, there is still much to do to achieve financial equality. No discrepancies whatsoever should exist between men and women in the 21st century.
Top Gender Pay Gap Statistics and Facts (Editor’s Choice)
- The average gender pay gap was 18.9% in 2018.
- Women with full-time jobs make 81.1% as much as their male colleagues.
- Women with children made $1 more per week than women without children in 2015.
- 5% of men stated they earn less than their female counterparts.
- Women in executive positions make $0.69 for $1 that men make.
- Female MBAs and Health Professional Doctorates encounter a wage gap of $0.97.
- The poverty rate for transgender people is 29.4%.
Essential Male vs. Female Salary Statistics
1. Men’s median salary is around 19% bigger than women’s median salary.
In 2020, female workers have made 81 cents per dollar that men have made. This number is a representation of an uncontrolled pay gap that takes into account the median salary for all male and female employees regardless of their job position. The figure indicates a 2% improvement compared to 2019 and a 7% increase from 2015. Back then, men had a 26% higher pay than women.
2. Female workers earn 98 cents for $1 that their male colleagues make.
Wage gap data show that women who occupy the same positions as men still face unequal pay. Despite the same job, qualifications, and skills, women in the workforce earn two cents less than men without any legitimate reason.
This is called a controlled pay gap, and it measures the average salary that men and women earn for the same job. It has been narrowing slowly but steadily, dropping by a tiny fraction of 1% annually. Since 2015, it has decreased by $0.01.
3. Women with children made $1 more per week than women without children in 2015.
Gender wage gap stats reveal shocking facts. Five years ago, working mothers earned approximately the same amount as women who didn’t have children — $727 versus $726 per week. But, working fathers made nearly $141 more than men without children. These figures are rather shameful, provided that the authorities are highlighting the importance of motherhood and family, in general.
Luckily, this number decreased in 2018. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics’s gender wage gap, working mothers are now making slightly more ($15) than women without children. Similarly, working fathers also saw an increase in weekly salary. They make $179 more than men who don’t have children. As it can be deduced from these numbers, the pay gap is inevitable even when it comes to parenthood.
4. 25-year-old women earn 94.3% of the median salary their male peers make.
The gender wage gap facts show that, on a yearly basis, male workers earn more than their female peers. The pay gap, though, is not that wide for younger workers.
More precisely, 25-year-old women make approximately 94.3% of what 25-year-old men make. On the contrary, 50-year-old women make only 77.4% of their male peers. What’s even worse is the fact that women over 75 are almost twice as likely to end up living in poverty.
5. Female teachers make 92 cents for every $1 that men make.
As for the US wage gap statistics, gender inequality exists even among the school teachers. Namely, females earn $0.92 for every dollar their male colleagues earn. The same ratio applies to flight attendants. Similarly, female GPs make 94 cents to $1 their male colleagues make, whereas nurses earn 98 cents. Even though women make up 90% of the nursing staff, they still earn less than men.
6. 5% of men earn less than women.
42% of women admitted they faced discrimination in the workplace, compared to only 20% of men. One of the most frequent and reported ways of discrimination in the workplace was unequal payment. According to gender wage gap statistics, as much as 25% stated they were paid less than men for the same job. In contrast, only 5% of men said the same.
7. In 2020, women have lost $11,900 in compensation on average.
If a woman starts working at 22 and retires at 62, she will have a 40-year-long career. Her average salary will amount to $49,800 for the uncontrolled and $60,700 for the controlled group, as opposed to men’s $61,700. The wage gap is based on the gap of 81 cents and 98 cents for $1, respectively.
The wage statistics by gender reveal that, in 2020, female workers from the uncontrolled and controlled group lost $11,900 and $1,000 in compensation, respectively.
8. Women may lose $900,000 throughout their 40-year-long career.
Supposing that the gender wage gap remains the same and that employees have a 3% increase, women’s uncontrolled average salary over 40 years would amount to $3,750,000. As for the controlled group, the sum would be $4,570,000. Men, however, would earn $4,650,000 during their 40-year-long career.
These figures suggest that average income by gender would have dire long-term effects. The entire sum of money that women earned throughout their careers would be $900,000 less than men’s. That sum is significantly smaller for the controlled group — $80,000. Hence, provided that their average salary is $60,700, women who have the same job, skills, and qualifications as their male colleagues would have to work a year longer to have identical income as men.
Discouraging Racial Wage Gap Statistics: Who Is in the Most Unfavorable Position?
Racism and discrimination against one’s race and religion are serious issues that must be tackled. It’s humiliating that in 2020, people, particularly women, face discrimination at multiple levels just because they’re non-caucasian and non-Christian. Out of all races and nationalities that live in the US, black women seem to have the most unfavorable status.
9. Women of color earn 25% less than white men.
Wage gap statistics by race and gender reveal disgraceful data. Native American, African-American, and Hispanic women earn 75 cents for a dollar that white men make. Compared to the amount in 2019, this figure rose by $0.01 in 2020.
The situation is slightly better for Asian women — they make 95 cents for $1 that men make, which is a $0.02 increase from 2019 when Asian women made 93 cents. In the meantime, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander females earned 80 cents for $1 men earned.
10. African-American women make 75 cents for every dollar white men make.
The wage gap statistics according to race still show the differences in salary between white men and women of color, no matter if the group is uncontrolled or controlled. Regarding the latter, a tremendous gap exists between African-American women’s and white men’s salary.
For each dollar white men earn, African-American women make 75 cents, regardless of their skills and qualifications. Hispanic women make 98 cents, while Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander women make 99 cents. Out of all non-whites, Asian women make the most — $1.02 for $1 white men earn.
11. Female executives make 69 cents for each dollar that men make.
As for statistics on the wage gap, the more women advance in their careers, the wider the pay gap. With controlled data, women executives earn 95 cents for $1 of their male peers’ earnings. However, uncontrolled statistics are shocking. Namely, female executives make only $0.69 for $1 male executives earn.
These figures indicate an increase of $0.01 compared to 2019 for the uncontrolled and no advancement at all for the controlled data. This gap, however, isn’t unique to female executives. Namely, females in Trump’s administration also have the same payment ratio, i.e., they earn 69 cents for a dollar earned by men.
12. African-American female executives make 62 cents for $1 white male executives make.
Wage gap statistics by race and gender indicate that African-American female executives tend to be in the worst position. Even though they manage to climb the corporate ladder and reach the executive position, they still earn considerably less than white male executives.
The greatest controlled wage gap figures are for African-American female executives. They earn only $0.62 for $1 white male executives make. This number shows a decrease of $0.01 compared to 2019.
13. Women of color are 19% less likely to get a raise than white men.
Even though all races are identically inclined to ask for a raise, not everyone will get it. Racial wage gap statistics suggest that non-white women are 19% less likely to get a raise than white men. Likewise, non-white men have 25% less chance to get a bigger salary. In this very case, men are victims of more severe workplace discrimination.
14. Female MBAs and Health Professional Doctorates face a wage gap of 97 cents.
Unfortunately, high education doesn’t necessarily mean pay equality. The gender pay gap statistics have seen little to no advancement regarding high education levels contrasted to high school diplomas. This pay gap amounts to $0.97 and is the most striking with MBAs and Health Professional Doctorates. Similarly, bachelor’s degree holders face a wage gap of 99 cents.
Undoubtedly, MBAs face the greatest uncontrolled gender wage gap, with women earning $0.75 for $1 that men make. Regarding the controlled gap, gender pay gap facts uncover the figure of $0.97, implying that male and female employees with MBAs have different titles and job levels.
15. Females with law degrees make 83 cents for $1 that men make.
The pay gap can be observed among all professions. Thus, women who have a law degree are not excluded either. However unjust it may seem, they make $0.83 for each dollar their male counterparts make.
16. Only 19%–22% of female workers agree they are fairly paid.
As for gender pay gap research, the great majority of women feel they aren’t paid justly for their work. Similarly, 41% of men think they are paid unfairly, as opposed to 25% of white men who deem they are paid justly, which stands for the highest percentage. Regarding female workers, only 19% to 22% percent agree they earn the salary they deserve.
LGBT Wage Gap Stats You Shouldn’t Neglect
17. On average, gay men make 11% less than straight men.
Based on the Williams Institute study, the same can be said for lesbian women, even though there’s a general notion that they make more money than straight women. But, the reality is quite different. As for gay men, wage gap statistics uncover that they make around 11% less than their straight counterparts.
18. Lesbian women make 12% less money than heterosexual women.
Regardless of the company or position, lesbian women make less money than their female heterosexual colleagues. On average, lesbian women make $45,606 a year, while straight women make $51,461 a year. The wage gap is even bigger between gay and straight men ($56,936 and 83,469, respectively). Here, the LGBT wage gap statistics prove that discrimination based on sexual orientation is equally present in both sexes.
19. Transgender people make about 30% less than heterosexuals.
(Center for American Progress)
Transgender people are no exception when it comes to the wage gap and discrimination in the workplace. Transgender women are especially vulnerable. The research has shown that female transgender employees’ earnings dropped by 30% after their transition.
Oddly enough, transgender men started to earn more after their transition. The results undoubtedly conclude that transgender men have an increase in their salary. The research reveals the shocking gender pay inequality statistics and discrimination based on gender identity. Transgender women face considerable wage gaps, mainly due to their gender.
20. The average household income for same-sex couples amounts to $15,500.
(Center for American Progress)
Not only do homosexual and transgender employees face discrimination in its broadest form, but they also struggle with income and bills. Contrary to stereotypes, same-sex couples and families make strikingly less than heterosexual families. To be precise, the average same-sex household revenue is 20% less than the heterosexual one.
21. The poverty rate for transgender people is 29.4%.
According to the LGBT wage gap statistics, the poverty rate is different for same-sex marriages and different-sex marriages (6.6% and 5.6%, respectively). If we observe groups, 21.6% of LBGT people and 15.7% of cisgender people live in poverty. But the greatest poverty rate can be seen in the transgender population—more transgender people live in poverty than lesbian, gay, or bisexual people. Transgender men have the highest poverty rate (33.7%), followed by transgender women (29.6%). By narrowing the wage gap between these marginalized groups of people, the poverty rate would be significantly reduced.
Eye-Opening Gender Pay Gap Stats by Industry
22. Finance and insurance have the biggest uncontrolled pay gap of 76 cents for $1.
The gender pay gap by industry statistics show that the gap is more distinct in various industries. Undoubtedly, the widest uncontrolled wage gap is seen in finance and insurance ($0.76). Agencies and consultancies come next at $0.86 and are followed by healthcare at $0.83. Retail and customer service have the same pay gap as healthcare, $0.83, while transportation and warehousing see a gap of $0.84. The slightest uncontrolled pay gap is found in the art and entertainment and recreation industries, amounting to $0.94. Similarly, real estate and rental see a pay gap of $0.92.
23. Women holding education, library, and training positions make 72 cents for every dollar men make.
Even though 74% of educators, trainers, and librarians are women, they witness quite a wide gender pay gap. To illustrate, they make only $0.72 to $1 their male counterparts make. Although women account for 70% of the overall education workforce, they mostly teach in elementary schools. Men, on the other hand, have that privilege to teach in high schools.
24. Female employees in the healthcare sector make 96 cents for every dollar that male employees make.
Despite the fact that women dominate the healthcare sector, they still earn less. Male workers may account for only 13% of the healthcare sector, but they still earn more than their female colleagues. Average income by gender stats show that women in healthcare earn $0.96 for $1 earned by men.
25. Female legal and social service professionals make $1 for each $1 that men make when data are controlled.
2020 sees the closing of the controlled pay gap for legal and social service professions. Women employed in these two sectors make $1.00 and $0.98 respectively for a dollar that men earn.
On the contrary, maintenance, installation, and repair positions witness the broadest controlled wage gap, amounting to $0.94. The wage gap in construction and extraction is $0.96, while food preparation and serving, management, and protection services have a gap of $0.97.
26. The wage gap exists even in industries where both men and women have the same qualifications and do the same job.
The pay gap between males and females can mostly be seen in male-dominated industries, but that is not always the case. The following list involves 10 occupations where men make more money for the same job.
- Sales representatives and related occupations: $0.90
- Emergency management specialist: $0.89
- Police officers: $0.89
- Gaming supervisor: $0.88
- Drivers: $0.86
- Waiters and waitresses: $0.86
- Fashion designers: $0.85
- Computer operators: $0.85
- Farm and other agricultural managers: $0.84
- Anesthesiologists: $0.83
The Bottom Line: Effects of Gender Pay Gap
The wage gap doesn’t only affect finances, but it also has an adverse effect on workers’ mental health and physical well-being. Even though the level of discrimination and wage gap is significantly reduced compared to previous decades, it’s still present across various industries.
Apart from shake self-confidence, employees who face pay, gender, and racial discrimination often feel exhausted and frustrated. These physical and mental states may even result in depression or anxiety disorders. Considering that women are expected to work and take care of their families at the same time, it’s not surprising that their mental health is in danger.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
What is the gender wage gap?
The gender pay gap is a metric that shows the amount of money women make compared to men. In essence, it measures the difference in pay between men and women of all races, sexual orientations, or gender identities. It’s used to indicate how much female employees make for every dollar that their male counterparts make. The gender wage ratio is typically measured for full-time employees.
How is the wage gap calculated?
To calculate the median wage gap, you should sum all annual salaries that full-time female employees receive, from highest to lowest. Next, you do the same with the male employees’ salaries. Once you get all the necessary figures, you compare the numbers that sit in the middle for each gender to get the gender wage gap. Factors such as age, experience, and job roles are not included, but it’s still seen as the closest representation.
What is an uncontrolled pay gap?
The uncontrolled or raw pay gap refers to the average salary of all male and female employees regardless of their occupation or job position. In the US, the approximate uncontrolled pay gap amounts to around $0.79 or $0.80 that women have made for each dollar that men have made. In contrast to the uncontrolled, there is a controlled pay gap, which indicates the average salary of men and women who have the same qualifications and occupy, more or less, the same positions.
What causes the gender wage gap?
Some of the gender pay gap’s primary causes include differences in industries or occupations, education and experience, the number of hours worked, and discrimination based on gender, race, religion, or sexual orientation. However, those are just some of the primary drivers of the gender pay gap. Other factors may include so-called feminized jobs — those which are done predominantly by women. Unfortunately, the gender pay gap may be influenced by some unknown or inexplicable factors, such as the belief that men are better at some jobs than women.
When did the pay gap start?
Basically, the pay gap has existed ever since women started becoming a part of the labor force at the beginning of the 20th century. It was in the 1960s when the fight for equal pay actually started. The struggle resulted in passing the new bill — the Equal Pay Act. The signing of this bill in 1963 helped narrow the wage gap, but unfortunately, it hasn’t eradicated it completely. As wage gap statistics predict, women aren’t likely to reach equal pay up until 2059.